Near midnight on March 30, 1776, Gen. Benedict Arnold wrote to his old friend Silas Deane from his camp outside Quebec City, mostly to complain about the hunger and disease his men were suffering.
For the previous three months, Arnold had besieged the city after British defenders defeated the Continental Army in the Battle of Quebec on Dec. 31, 1775. Arnold had come up with the idea of attacking Quebec. It wasn’t a good one, and neither was the siege.
Arnold and Deane both came from Connecticut, Arnold from Norwich, Deane from nearby Groton. As young men before the war they were both successful merchant traders and had become friends. One would betray his country, and one would be falsely accused of betrayal.
Benedict Arnold Writes
At the time of Arnold’s letter, Deane was in Philadelphia, though Connecticut had recalled him as the colony’s representative to the Continental Congress. He stayed on in Philadelphia anyway. Soon he would leave for Paris to seek help for the army from the French government.
Arnold’s letter from the “Camp before Quebeck,” on March 30, 1776, began with a warning.
“DEAR SIR,” he wrote. “I have often sat down to write you, and as often been prevented by matters of consequence crowding upon me, which I could not postpone. I am now so much perplexed with a multiplicity of affairs that I can hardly form an assemblage of three ideas.”
Those ideas, he wrote, “I am afraid, will not be very pleasing to you.” They would convey no agreeable intelligence, but rather complaints, which, he knew, also troubled Deane.
Arnold then sketched the army’s strength, situation and prospects. One of his problems: the Continental Army version of anti-vaxxers.
Vexed by Anti-Vaxxers
From January 1 to March 1, the army never had more than 700 effective men on the ground, Arnold wrote. Frequently it had less than 500.
“Our numbers are far short of what I expected before this time,” wrote Arnold. He expected the New England troops to be of little service as most of them had smallpox. “That fatal disorder has got into our camp, though every method that prudence could suggest has been attempted to prevent it,” he wrote.
He had given a variety of orders to prevent smallpox, which the men “repeatedly disobeyed or neglected.”
The reinforcements, (as fast as they came in,) privately prepared and inoculated, (Colonel Warner’ s Regiment and Major Cady’ s detachment in particular;) not one-quarter of the former, and very few of the latter, are fit for duty; so that the publick will incur an expense of at least twenty pounds for each of those people, who will not, on an average, have done ten days’ service to the 15th April, to which time they are engaged. Our Surgeons are without medicine; our Hospitals crowded, and in want of almost every necessary.
Arnold continued with a description of the army’s lack of strength and difficult situation. Despite their bleak prospects, Arnold declared ‘we are determined to exert ourselves.’ And to his credit, he didn’t complain about his own wounded foot. He concluded:
It is now twelve o’ clock at night, and I dare say you will be glad when I end my dull epistle.
Commander-in-Chief George Washington recalled Arnold before he got a chance to attack Quebec City again . The British then routed the army during the May retreat. updated in
This story updated in 2022.
There is a monument to a leg at the National Battle of Saratoga Park ; the monument honors a wounding in the leg of an important American officer in that battle, but doesn’t mention his name – Benedict Arnold.
My maiden name is Arnold. Wonder if he was a relative
18th-century job stress…
It was actually a great idea to invade Canada when Arnold brought it up to Congress in late May of 1775, after successfully raiding St. Jean, Canada. In doing so he was able to take the British sloop, the George, and about a dozen prisoners, on May 19, 1775, and control Lake Champlain. He had the accurate intelligence of the British strengths, and that time was the most important factor, before the British could bring reinforcements. Unfortunately Congress took a long time to approve the plan, and appointed General Phillip Schuler to command the raid, and then Schuler had issues getting things together and with his health, so too much time was wasted.
Taking control of Quebec City and other small ports near the Richelieu River were integral in protecting the colonies from the British plan of coming south from Canada and splitting up New England from the rest of the colonies.
Arnold could have just stayed home after being relieved, a wealthy man already he had no reason to go into war, but he made a pitch to George Washington in Cambridge to lead a second attack from the Maine Wilderness with approximately 1000 troops in one of the most epic journeys in this country’s history. If Congress had committed earlier, Canada could easily have been taken and become the 14th colony.
Do you know who your Arnold ancestors are? It might be easy to find out.
[…] Benedict Arnold had spent the year harassing the British. In concert with Vermonter Ethan Allen, Arnold […]
Comments are closed.